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Cosenza, city, north-central Calabria regione (region), southern Italy, on the Crati River at its confluence with the Busento, north-northeast of Reggio di Calabria. Perry keeps the emphasis on the risks taken by a brave few Calabrian women [​who] shattered the myth of mafia invulnerability Pesce [is] a character worthy​. The made in Italy of cleofe finati will be official will be official partner at Sanremo The dandy is the Calabrian Gianni Testa in the jury of "Area %. The cuisine is a typical Sexy plus size women nude Italian Mediterranean cuisine with a balance Hot sex video online meat-based dishes pork, lamb, goatvegetables especially eggplantand fish. Where the forests have been destroyed in the strictly Mediterranean section of Horney old men Apennines, a scrub that is called maquis has grown…. The area boasts numerous Mom butt sex and dense coniferous forests. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the @sexievonkat Seaand to the east by the Ionian Sea. Skinny dipping sex 15 June Fist me daddy After a brief 60 plus lesbians in the early s under Nudist beach fucking Austrian Habsburgs, Calabria came into the control of the Spanish Bourbons in This article Calabrian women additional citations for verification.

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Nilus the Younger as a retreat for the monks who lived in the tufa grottos underneath. The present name of Calabria comes from the duchy of Calabria.

Around the year , Saracens began invading the shores of Calabria, attempting to wrest control of the area from the Byzantines.

This group of Arabs had already been successful in Sicily and knew that Calabria was another key spot. The people of Calabria retreated into the mountains for safety.

Although the Arabs never really got a stronghold on the whole of Calabria, they did control some villages while enhancing trade relations with the eastern world.

Exotic spices such as cloves and nutmeg were also introduced. In the s the Normans from their duchy in France, under the leadership of Robert Guiscard 's brother, Roger I of Sicily , established a presence in this borderland , and organized a government modeled on the Eastern Roman Empire and was run by the local magnates of Calabria.

Of note is that the Normans established their presence here, in southern Italy namely Calabria , 6 years prior to their conquest of England, see The Battle of Hastings.

The purpose of this strategic presence in Calabria was to lay the foundations for the Crusades 30 years later, and for the creation of two Kingdoms: the Kingship of Jerusalem, and the Kingdom of Sicily.

Ships would sail from Calabria to the Holy Land. This made Calabria one of the richest regions in Europe as princes from the noble families of England, France and other regions, constructed secondary residences and palaces here, on their way to the Holy Land.

Guiscard's son Bohemond , who was born in San Marco Argentano , would be one of the leaders in the first crusade. Of particular note is the Via Francigena , an ancient pilgrim route that goes from Canterbury to Rome and southern Italy, reaching Calabria, Basilicata and Apulia, where the crusaders lived, prayed and trained, respectively.

An Arab presence is evidenced by findings at an eighth-century necropolis which had items with Arabic inscriptions. Under the Normans Southern Italy was united as one region and started a feudal system of land ownership in which the Normans were made lords of the land while peasants performed all the work on the land.

He created a kingdom that blended cultures, philosophy and customs and would build several castles while fortifying existing ones which the Normans previously constructed.

In Calabria came under the control of Ferdinand II of Aragon who is famed for sponsoring the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in Calabria suffered greatly under Aragonese rule with heavy taxes, feuding landlords, starvation and sickness.

After a brief period in the early s under the Austrian Habsburgs, Calabria came into the control of the Spanish Bourbons in In philosopher and natural scientist Bernardino Telesio wrote "On the Nature of Things according to their Own Principles" and pioneered early modern empiricism.

At the end of the 18th century the French took control and in Napoleon Bonaparte gave the Kingdom of Naples to his brother-in-law Joachim Murat.

Murat controlled the kingdom until the return of the Bourbons in The population of Calabria in was 1,, Calabria experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the European Revolutions of This set the stage for the eventual unification with the rest of Italy in , when the Kingdom of Naples was brought into the union by Giuseppe Garibaldi.

The unification was orchestrated by Great Britain in an attempt to nationalize the production of sulfur from the two volcanoes located in Naples and Sicily respectively.

The Aspromonte was the scene of a famous battle of the unification of Italy. During the late 19th or early 20th century, pianist and composer Alfonso Rendano invented the "Third Pedal", [90] which augmented the interpretative resources of the piano.

The ancient Greek colonies from Naples and to the south, had been completely Latinized , but from the fifth century AD onward Greeks had once again emigrated there when pressed out of their homeland by invasions.

This Greek Diaspora allowed the ancient Greek dialects to continue in Southern Italy, much in the same way that the Italian Diaspora allowed long-lost dialects from Italy to thrive in countries where Italians emigrated to.

Greek texts were also valued in monasteries and places of learning. However it was Charlemagne in the 8th century, who made Latin the 'official' language of study and communication for Europe.

For the sake of uniformity, he supplanted much of the Greek spoken, read or taught in Europe. It was through language Latin and education Latin texts that Charlemagne united Europe.

During the 13th century a French chronicler who traveled through Calabria stated that "the peasants of Calabria spoke nothing but Greek" given he had traveled to areas where Greek was still available.

But the educated classes spoke Italian. Indeed, formal Italian has been taught in schools throughout Italy for nearly two centuries, causing the ancient languages and dialects to continually disappear, much to the chagrin of the cultural community.

These lost dialects continue to thrive to this day in North America and Australia, places where Italians emigrated to, on account of the Diaspora.

Garibaldi planned to complete the Risorgimento by invading Rome, still ruled by the Pope protected by a French garrison, and began with semi-official encouragement to raise an army.

In the newly unified Kingdom of Italy, there were significant differences in level of economic development between the Nord north of Italy and the Mezzogiorno the south of Italy.

Many Italian academics from the north, such as the Piedmontese anthropologist Cesare Lombroso , explained this difference in racial terms.

In his book L'uomo delinquente "The criminal man" , Lombroso argued that the people from the north were part of the "Nordic" race while people from Mezzogiorno were descended from the "African" and "Semitic" races, citing the high murder rates in Calabria, Sicily and Sardinia as evidence that the people from the south were descended from "inferior" races.

Lombroso testified that the rampage was due to the fact that Calabrians were innately violent and criminal due to racial reasons, a point elaborated upon in his essay In Calabria , where he argued that it was the "Semitic" racial character of Calabrians that determined their behavior.

Calabria together with the rest of the Mezzogiorno was neglected under the Kingdom of Italy with the general feeling in Rome being that the region was hopelessly backward and poor.

In common with the deputies from other regions of the Mezzogiorno , they voted against more money for education under the grounds that an educated population would demand changes that would threaten the power of the traditional elite.

On 28 December , Calabria together with Sicily was devastated by an earthquake and then by a tsunami caused by the earthquake, causing about 80, deaths.

Fascism was not popular in Calabria. In December when a false rumor spread in Reggio Calabria that Benito Mussolini had resigned as Prime Minister because of the Matteotti affair, joyous celebrations took place in the city that lasted all night.

The landed aristocracy and gentry of Calabria, through generally not ideologically committed to Fascism, saw the Fascist regime as a force for order and social stability, and supported the dictatorship.

On 3 September , British and Canadian troops of the British 8th Army landed in Calabria in Operation Baytown , marking the first time that the Allies landed on the mainland of Italy.

The British historian Jonathan Dunnage wrote that there was an "institutional continuity" between the civil servants of the Liberal, Fascist and post-Fascist eras in Calabria as each change of regime saw the bureaucrats of the region adjust to whatever regime was in power in Rome and there was no purge of civil servants either after or The clientistic political system in Calabria under which elite families handed out patronage to their supporters and used violence against their opponents, which was the prevailing norm in the Liberal and Fascist eras continued after On 28 October in Melissa the police opened fire on peasants who had seized the land of a local baron, killing three men who were shot in the back as they attempted to flee.

Under the First Republic, starting in the s, investment plans were launched under which Italian state sponsored industrialisation and attempted to improve the infrastructure of Calabria by building modern roads, railroads, ports, etc.

Calabria enjoys a diversified economy comparable to western nations in various categories, as shown in these statistics: the Gross Domestic Product GDP of Calabria is subdivided as follows: service industry It is one of the least resort developed regions in Italy.

Its economy is hampered by corruption, tax evasion and organized crime which is mainly run by the 'Ndrangheta the local Mafia syndicate ; the latter has deep connections with some of the local authorities.

Food and textile industries are the most developed and vibrant. Within the industrial sector, manufacturing contributes to a gross value added of 7. In the manufacturing sector the main branches are foodstuff, beverage and tobacco with a contribution to the sector very close to the national average.

Calabria attracts year-round tourism, offering both summer and winter activities, in addition to its cultural, historical, artistic heritage, it has an abundance of protected natural habitats and 'green' zones.

The miles kilometres of its coast make Calabria a tourist destination during the summer. The low industrial development and the lack of major cities in much of its territory have allowed the maintenance of indigenous marine life.

In addition to the coastal tourist destinations, the interior of Calabria is rich in history, traditions, art and culture. Cosenza is among the most important cultural cities of Calabria, with a rich historical and artistic patrimony.

Medieval castles, towers, churches, monasteries and other French castles and structures from the Norman to the Aragonese periods are common elements in both the interior and coastline of Calabria.

The mountains offer skiing and other winter activities: Sila , Pollino and Aspromonte are three national parks that offer facilities for winter sports, especially in the towns of Camigliatello comune of Spezzano della Sila , Lorica comune of San Giovanni in Fiore , Gambarie and Monte Sant'Elia comune of Palmi.

A typical feature is agricultural richness in Calabria. The region boasts the second highest number of organic farmers only after Sicily.

The red onion of Tropea is considered one of the excellent products of the region. It is cultivated during the summer period in the Tyrrhenian coast of central Calabria.

The olive tree, representing The Bergamot orange is intensively cultivated, since the 18th century, [] exclusively in coastal area nearby to Reggio , where it found its optimal geological and weather conditions: essence oil from Calabrian Bergamot reach the best quality in the world.

Calabria is also the largest producer of Porcini Mushrooms in Italy. The unemployment rate stood at The main Calabrian ports are in Reggio and in Gioia Tauro.

The Reggio port is equipped with five loading docks of a length of 1, metres 5, feet. The Gioia Tauro port has seven loading docks with an extension of 4, metres 15, feet ; it is the largest in Italy and the seventh largest container port in Europe, [] with a throughput of 3.

The region is served by three heavily used roads: two national highways along the coasts SS18 Napoli - Reggio and SS Reggio - Taranto and the A2 motorway , which links Salerno and Reggio , passing by Cosenza along the old inland route.

In Calabria there are two main airports: one is situated in Reggio , a few kilometres from city centre, built in is chronologically the first airport in Calabria; another is located in Lamezia Terme municipality area, currently being the first airport in Calabria concerning the number of passengers per year.

The following is a list of Calabrian municipalities with a population of over 20, []. Tourism in Calabria has increased over the years. The main tourist attractions are the coastline and the mountains.

The coastline alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside destinations.

The sea around Calabria is clear, and there is a good level of tourist accommodation. Some other prominent destinations include:.

Although the official national language of Calabria has been Standard Italian since before unification in , as a consequence of its deep and colourful history, Calabrian dialects have developed that have been spoken in the region for centuries.

The Calabrian language is a direct derivative of the Latin language, and is closer to the words spoken in Latin than the standard Italian.

Most linguists divide the various dialects into two different language groups. In the northern one-third of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of the Neapolitan language or Southern Italian and are grouped as Northern Calabrian or Cosentino.

In the southern two-thirds of the region, the Calabrian dialects are often grouped as Central and Southern Calabrian. However, in isolated pockets, as well as some quarters of Reggio Calabria a variety of Occitan can also be found in certain communities and French has had an influence on many Calabrian words and phrases.

In addition, since Calabria was once ruled by the Spanish, some Calabrian dialects exhibit Spanish derivatives. It is a derivative of ancient Greek with influences of Calabrian dialect , belonging to the ancient Bizantine dominations.

The majority of Calabrians are Roman Catholic. There are also communities of Evangelicals in the region.

Francis of Paola. Calabria also has another patron saint called Saint Bruno of Cologne who was the founder of the Carthusian Order.

Saint Bruno would build the charterhouse of Serra San Bruno , a town which bears his name, in and later die there in Even though it is currently a very small community, there has been a long history of the presence of Jews in Calabria.

The Jews have had a presence in the region for at least years and possibly as much as years. Calabrian Jews have had notably influence on many areas of Jewish life and culture.

Although virtually identical to the Jews of Sicily, the Jews of Calabria are considered a distinct Jewish population due to historical and geographic considerations.

There is a small community of Italian Anusim who have resumed the Jewish faith. It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in Renaissance humanism and in the Renaissance.

Indeed, the Hellenistics in this period frequently came from Calabria maybe because of the Greek influence.

The rediscovery of Ancient Greek was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was fundamental.

The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a work of two monks of the monastery of Seminara : Barlaam , bishop of Gerace , and his disciple, Leonzio Pilato.

Leonzio Pilato , in particular, was a Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer 's works.

The cuisine is a typical southern Italian Mediterranean cuisine with a balance between meat-based dishes pork, lamb, goat , vegetables especially eggplant , and fish.

In contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food and packing vegetables and meats in olive oil.

Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened pastries Cudduraci , Nacatole, Scalille or scalidde or baked biscotti -type treats such as nzudda.

Important grape varieties are the red Gaglioppo and white Greco. Many producers are resurrecting local, ancient grape varieties which have been around for as long as years.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Calabria disambiguation. Region of Italy. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Region of Italy in Catanzaro.

Coat of arms. Main article: Politics of Calabria. Main article: Calabrian languages. See also: History of the Jews in Calabria.

See also: Calabrian wine. Main article: List of people from Calabria. Canzoni regionali in un doppio cd" in Italian. Retrieved 26 March Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 13 September Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary.

Oxford University Press. Retrieved 6 May Collins English Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Retrieved 8 May The Jews in Calabria. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Roman Antiquities. Harvard University Press. In Jones, H. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

A History of Earliest Italy. Retrieved on 28 July Archived from the original on 2 July Retrieved 2 July Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 21 December Servizio Meteorologico.

Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 24 September Tectonophysics, , — Comptes Rendus 3rd Int. Romana, 12, — Carta Geol. Cracovie, Cl.

In: Squyres, C. Geology of Italy, Earth Sci. Firenze, pp. These, Univ. In: Nairn, A. Kanes and F. Stehli Eds. The ocean basins and margins, Plenum Press, 5, —, New York.

These 3e cycle, Univ. Pierre et M. Curie, Paris Fr. Tectonic sequence stratigraphy and dynamic geohistory. With special reference to the geology of Central Calabria.

Geologica Ultrajectina, 92, pp. Implications for a Pliocene-Recent geodynamic scenario for the Central Mediterranean. Earth Sci.

The government also promoted the development of resorts and recreational areas for tourists in suitable spots along the coasts. Catanzaro, the regional capital , Reggio di Calabria , and Cosenza are the only cities of any size.

Rail communications are still largely limited to the coasts and consist of the Rome—Naples—Reggio di Calabria line running along the west coast and the Ionian, or Taranto—Reggio di Calabria, line on the east coast.

Calabria is one of the few areas of southern Italy that has a non-Italian minority: a substantial number of Albanians fled the Turkish conquest of their homeland in the 15th and 16th centuries and settled there.

They have retained their use of the Albanian language , the Greek Orthodox rite in their churches, and, on occasion, their colourful national costumes.

Area 5, square miles 15, square km. Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.

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